A racial zoning ordinance passed in 1916 in St Louis forbade its citizens from moving onto a block where 75 percent or more of the residents were of a different race. Landlords and real estate agencies began putting covenants into the deeds of properties that stated that the properties were only to be lived in by white people. African-Americans were left in what was termed the riskiest neighborhoods and could not move to the affluent zones to access better jobs and education. African-Americans became homeowners at lower rates and were crowded into segregated neighborhoods where housing values stagnated. While legislation no longer exists that allows segregation, racial isolation is still prevalent and needs fixing.
COLIN GORDON. Mapping Decline: St. Louis and the Fate of the American City. (Politics and Culture in Modern America.) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 2008.
Sarah Hobson, Ph.D. specializes in supporting teams, departments and schools, businesses, and government agencies in building inclusive innovative change-making communities who understand how to connect well with and join diverse populations in providing needed sustainable resources for all youth and families.